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Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Reading

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BoardUP Board
TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 10
SubjectEnglish Grammar
Chapter NameMode of Reading
ClassClass 10 English
Website Nameupboardmaster.com

UP Board Master for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Reading

Section-A
‘Mode of Reading or Reading Style’
वाचन शैली

Introduction
Speaking मनुष्य का एक स्वाभाविक गुण है किन्तु Reading और Writing स्वाभाविक गुण नहीं है। बल्कि इन्हें उपार्जित कौशल (acquired skills) कहा जाता है। शिक्षण के द्वारा विद्यार्थी 5 या 6 वर्ष की आयु में पढ़ना सीख जाते हैं किन्तु Reading Skill में master बनने में उन्हें वर्षों लग जाते हैं। विद्यालय द्वारा प्रदत्त सबसे अधिक उपयोगी कौशल अथवा बौद्धिक प्रक्रिया वाचन-शिक्षण है। बालक की समस्त मानसिक एवं भावनात्मक उन्नति वाचन-योग्यता (UPBoardMaster.com) (Reading Skill) पर निर्भर है। विद्यार्थियों में नूतन ज्ञानोपलब्धि, आनन्दप्राप्ति, शब्द-ज्ञान वृद्धि, व्यवहारिक एवं साहित्यिक योग्यता की वृद्धि तथा भाषा के अन्य कौशलों का विकास वाचन या पठन द्वारा ही सम्भव है। वास्तव में लिपि प्रतीकों की पहचान, अर्थ ग्रहण तथा पूर्वावर सम्बन्ध जोड़ते हुए पूर्ण आशय समझ लेने का नाम ही reading है।” Reading के दो types हैं

  • Reading Aloud (सस्वर पाठन/वाचन)
  • Reading Silently (मौन पठन)

Reading Skill
वाचन (Reading)बड़ी ही संश्लिष्ट मानसिक क्रिया है। प्रारम्भिक पठन-कार्य में लिपि का ध्वनि में परिवर्तन अर्थात् शब्दों का उच्चारण करना आवश्यक होता है। प्राथमिक स्तर (Primary Level) पर पठन-कौशल या वाचन-कौशल में सस्वर पठन (Read Aloud) का विशेष महत्त्व है। इसी कारण इस स्तर के पठन को ‘वाचन’ कहना अधिक उपयुक्त है। किन्तु केवल ध्वनि में परिवर्तन अथवा शब्दों का शुद्ध (UPBoardMaster.com) उच्चारण कर लेना और उनके अलग-अलग अर्थ समझ लेना ही पढ़ना नहीं कहा जा सकता। शब्दों के अर्थों का तारतम्य मिलाकर पूरे वाक्य और वाक्यों के अर्थ का तारतम्य मिलाकर पूर्वापर सम्बन्ध जोड़ते हुए अनुच्छेद (Paragraph) का और अनुच्छेदों के योग से किसी विषय की एक अन्विति का अर्थ ग्रहण कर लेना पठन-प्रक्रिया को आवश्यक अंग है।

Objectives of Reading
वाचन-शिक्षण के उद्देश्यों में भाषिक तत्त्वों का ज्ञान प्राप्त करना, विषय-वस्तु का ज्ञान प्राप्त करना, शुद्ध एवं स्पष्ट वाचन की योग्यता प्राप्त करना एवं रचना कार्य में विभिन्न रूपों का ज्ञान प्राप्त करना आदि प्रमुख है। इन उद्देश्यों की पूर्ति हेतु विद्यार्थियों की प्रथम मासिक परीक्षा में वाचन-शैली के अन्तर्गत वाद-विवाद प्रतियोगिता (Debate), विचारों की अभिव्यक्ति (Expression of feelings), भाषण (Speech), शब्द ज्ञान एवं इसका प्रयोग (Word-knowledge and its use) आदि विषय यहाँ प्रस्तुत

Debate

Introduction
Debate एक तार्किक वाद-विवाद (Logical argument) होता है जिसमें किसी विशेष विषय पर तर्क-वितर्क किया जाता है। इस विशेष विषय को Topic कहा जाता है। विभिन्न debates के लिए ये topics भी भिन्न-भिन्न (different) होते हैं। ये topics प्रायः सार्वजनिक महत्त्व के समसामयिक विषयों अथवा व्यापक विचारों या अवधारणाओं के बारे में होते हैं। दूसरे वाद-विवादों की तरह किसी भी topic के दो पक्ष होते हैं। जो team topic से सहमत होती है उसे Affirmative कहा जाता है और जो team topic से सहमत नहीं होती है उसे Negative कहा जाता है। एक debate का आयोजन करते समय प्रतिभागियों की age और education के अनुकूल topic का चयन महत्त्वपूर्ण होता है।

Objectives
Debate के अध्ययन का main objective विद्यार्थियों में वाचन की ऐसी कला का विकास करना है। जिससे वे किसी भी topic के दोनों पक्षों में समान रूप से वाद-विवाद कर सके और निर्णय लेने की क्रियाओं में महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभा सकें। Debate को social objective भी है। (UPBoardMaster.com) अन्य विद्यालयों के विद्यार्थियों से मिलकर वार्तालाप करने से सामाजिक दायरा भी बढ़ता है।

Method
यदि कोई Debate होनी हो तो इससे पहले debate के topic को जान लेना आवश्यक है और यह भी जाने लेना आवश्यक है कि topic का अर्थ क्या है। Topic का निर्णय करना और इसे जानना topic को define करना कहा जाता है। Defining के कार्य करने का आरम्भ Affirmative Team द्वारा किया जाता है। Affirmative Team के first speaker को स्पष्ट शब्दों में Topic का meaning explain करना चाहिए। यह Meaning सामान्यतः किसी dictionary का meaning ना होकर सामान्य व्यक्ति की समझ में आने वाला meaning होना चाहिए और debate के दोनों पक्षों को छूता होना चाहिए। Negative Team इस meaning से सहमत भी हो सकती है और प्रस्तुत meaning को challenge भी कर सकती है। Negative Team को challenge करते समय बहुत सावधान रहना चाहिए क्योंकि दो definitions के साथ debate को continue रखना बहुत difficult होता है। Challenge तब किया जाना चाहिए जब definition तर्कसंगत न हो अथवा यह opposition (UPBoardMaster.com) को debate से बाहर करती हो। यदि negative team definition को challenge करती है तो इसके first speaker को यह स्पष्ट करना आवश्यक है कि उन्होंने इसे challenge क्यों किया है और तब एक better definition सुझानी चाहिए।

Key Points of Debate
Debating में प्रत्येक team अपने पक्ष में कुछ points प्रस्तुत करती है और कुछ समय दूसरी team के द्वारा प्रस्तुत points के तर्को की समालोचना में भी लगाती है। इसे खंडन (rebuttal) कहा जाता है। Rebuttal के विषय में कुछ बातें स्मरणीय हैं

  1. Logic: दूसरा पक्ष गलत है ऐसा कह देना ही पर्याप्त नहीं है। आपको यह भी show करना पड़ता है। कि दूसरा पक्ष किस प्रकार गलत है। ऐसा करने के लिए दूसरे पक्ष के तर्क का एक main point लेते हुए यह दिखाना होता है कि इसका कोई अर्थ नहीं है। क्योंकि इसके लिए बहुत अधिक चिन्तन की शीघ्रता पूर्वक करने की आवश्यकता होती है। इसलिए यह debating का most challenging और enjoyable पहलू है।
  2. Pick the important points: दूसरे पक्ष के सबसे important points को rebut करने का प्रयास करना चाहिए। कुछ समय बाद आप पाते हैं कि इन्हें ढूंढना आसान और आसान हो गया है। इन्हें ढूंढने का निश्चित लक्षण है कि जब दूसरी team का first speaker अपनी team के द्वारा कही जाने वाली बात की संक्षिप्त रूपरेखा देता है। किन्तु उन बिन्दुओं का तब तक खण्डन नहीं करता जब तक कि वे अन्य team के द्वारा प्रस्तुत न किए जाएँ।
  3. Play the ball: व्यक्तिगत speakers की समालोचना न करके उसके कथन (statement) की आलोचना करनी चाहिए। किसी व्यक्ति को fat, ugly कहने से उनके कथन की आलोचना न करके आप व्यक्तिगत आलोचना करते हैं जिससे आपके अंक काटे जा सकते हैं।
    जब आप एक विशेष तर्क को रख रहे होते हैं तो यह सुनिश्चित कर लेना चाहिए कि तर्क अर्थपूर्ण (logical) हो और यह कि आपके द्वारा प्रस्तुत तर्क आपकी team और आपके द्वारा दिए जाने वाले example को support करता हो। इसी प्रकार (UPBoardMaster.com) आपको विपक्षी team को खण्डन करना चाहिए। आपको वक्तव्य समय के अनुरूप व्यवस्थित होना चाहिए। निर्णायक भनक पड़ता है जब आप केवल समय बर्बाद कर रहे हों और यह भी देख सकता है जब आप एक ही बिन्दु पर लम्बा समय लगाते हैं और तब अपने अन्य बिन्दुओं के खण्डन को अपने वक्तव्य को समय पर पूरा करने के लिए शीघ्रता से बोलते हैं। आप आरम्भ में गलती कर सकते हैं किन्तु आपको समझना चाहिए ‘Practice makes perfect’.

Conclusion
Debate की study के पश्चात् हम स्पष्टतया कह सकते हैं कि debate वस्तुत: एक argument है। जिसका अर्थ parties के बीच में अनियन्त्रित चिल्लाने का Match नहीं हैं जो विशेष विचार को मानती हैं। इसके विपरीत debate एक कठोर व्यवहारिक नियमों और शान्त भाव से तर्क-वितर्क की कला है। विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ कुछ debates को लिखित रूप में उदाहरणार्थ नीचे दिया जा रहा है।

1. Co-education : Its advantages and disadvantages Or Should boys and girls study together?

Introduction
Teacher : Dear children,
Today the topic of discussion is co-education that is education in which boys and girls read in a common school or college and sit together in the same classes. Schools and colleges are the temples of education. Indian culture and heritage have been exemplary since ancient time, but the problem is that these temples of education are now-a-days becoming the places of enjoyment but still there are some who provide quality education and ethical values to the students. Most of the parents have a question in their mind whether they admit their child to a single-sex school or co-education school. So team ‘A’ will speak in favour of the topic and team ‘B’ against of it.

Points in favour of Team ‘A’

  1. In free democratic India, girls cannot be denied education. Along with the boys, girls also must be educated. Now to run separate schools, in spite of an inadequate number of girl students is uneconomical. Separate Instructions for girls can be established only at big places where sufficient number of girls are always forthcoming to (UPBoardMaster.com) seek admissions. Through co-education much wastage is avoided and the cause of female education does not suffer.
  2. Co-education is good from the social point of view also. Young boys and girls get good opportunity to understand each other and remove shyness between them. They have to work in different walks of life in co-operation with each other. So, through co-education, a healthy spirit of working together is developed. Some of these young students choose their life partners from among their class-fellows. In this way, the problem of marriage for many parents is solved. Boys and girls educated together prove more successful in their family and social life. This is due to the understanding of each other’s psychology which they get during the period of their education.

Points against Team ‘B’

  1. When young boys and girls come closer to each other, they care more for each other than for their books. They get busy in making friends with each other. The boys chase their girl class-fellows on their cycles. Sometimes, they even deceive their parents. They remain away from their homes and enjoy the company of their friends of opposite sex in the cinema hall. The precious time of study is thus lost owing to sex attraction.
  2. Inside classrooms, the students try to attract the attention of their friends of the opposite sex. They become absent-minded. Boys keep combs in their pockets and dress up their hair off and on, even while the (UPBoardMaster.com) teacher is lecturing. All sorts of motions, gestures and signs are made in the class. The entire atmosphere of co-educational institutions is one of indiscipline. The evil-effects of co-education on character cannot be denied. Purity of character is impossible in such atmosphere.

Conclusion
Teacher’s Feedback : Dear Children
Keeping in view all the good and bad points of co-education we must say that we cannot totally reject it. There is no harm in educating girls and boys together in primary classes. Co-education is dangerous for the boys and girls of high school and inter classes. At this stage, several physical and mental changes take place. During this period, students must not be allowed to go astray. Total separation from each other is essential. Again, in university classes co-education must be allowed. By (UPBoardMaster.com) this stage boys and girls became sufficiently mature. They begin to understand their good and bad. So co-education can do no harm to them.

2. Hostel Life : Its advantages and disadvantages

Introduction
Teacher : Dear Children
It is said that home is sweet. But even then life at home cannot be compared to the life in a hostel. At home one has to live as other members of the family live. Elders are always there to check the activities of youngsters. One cannot even frame one’s own timetable of studies. One has to keep in mind the convenience of others. One has to study while others keep on talking and gossiping. Often one room and one lamp is used jointly by four or five brothers and sisters. If some relative or guest comes in the (UPBoardMaster.com) whole programme of studies is upset. In fact, at home there is no atmosphere for serious studies. There is constant disturbance due to one reason or the other. The life in the hostel is different from that of the home. The greatest blessing of hostel life is independence. So team ‘A’ will speak in favor of the topic and team ‘B’ will speak against it.

Points in favour of Team ‘A’

  1. In a hostel life is full of opportunities of amusement. One is constantly in touch with young men of one’s own age. One can make friends with one’s hostel fellows who have varied tastes and aptitudes. He may choose his friends according to his own liking. Good arrangements of games and sports, sunday specials eating competitions and day-to-day merry-making, makes the hostel life a thing of envy for all.
  2. In a hostel a student comes in contact with a number of other students. He acquires many good qualities from them. When a student sees his next door neighbor daily taking morning exercise he also gets inspiration. He too tries to be healthy. When one is ill, all his hostel fellows try their best to serve him. Mutual co-operation, sympathy (UPBoardMaster.com) and love are characteristics of hostel life.
  3. A hostel is a place where an all-round development of personality is possible. Hostels provide the best atmosphere for study. Weaker students can always get help from their class students. Hostel life not only develops the spirit of healthy competition, but also teaches the lesson of mutual co-operation.

Points against Team ‘B’

  1. Students coming for the first time to a hostel, find entirely new atmosphere. The freedom of the hostel leads them astray. They begin to smoke, gamble and at times even to drink. Daily visit to some cinema becomes a routine. They fail to choose good companions. The unlimited freedom proves harmful for such students.
  2. Parents send their wards to hostel for study, but there they waste their time in enjoyment and merry-making. As long as they go on receiving money, they care little from where it comes and to where (UPBoardMaster.com) it goes. They waste their precious time and the hard earned money of their parents like water. In later life, they have to repent for this folly.

Conclusion
Teacher’s Feedback : Dear children
Much of the usefulness, as well as harmlessness of hostel life depends upon its management. A badly managed hostel is bound to spoil the lives of its inmates. A well managed hostel is sure to prove a blessing for those who are lucky enough to live in it.

3. Advantages and disadvantages of female education Or Educated wife of today

Introduction
Teacher : Dear children
There was a time when very few women received proper education. But now girls are receiving the highest education. Some people insist on having educated girls as their wives. Others are strongly against this. Let us here consider in brief, the advantages and disadvantages of having an educated wife. Team ‘A’ will speak in favor of it and Team ‘B’ will speak against it.

Points in favour of Team ‘A’

  1.  Being educated, she can manage her home more efficiently. She can maintain accounts. By keeping the family budget, she helps the family in making the best of its income. She keeps her kitchen in hygienic condition.
  2. An educated girl understands her duties well. She proves (UPBoardMaster.com) a source of great comfort of her husband in times of trouble. She can keep him away from various vices. Besides this, as a mother also an educated wife is very useful. She can teach many things to her children. She can give them elementary education. She can keep them neat and clean.
  3. An educated wife can also help her husband in his office work. If the husband is out of employment, his educated wife can be of great help to him. An unfortunate widow, if she is educated, need not remain at the mercy of others. She can support herself and her children.

Points against Team ‘B’

  1. A modern, educated wife, due to her love for fashion and expensive habits, is often a financial burden. She puts the poor husband often in difficulty.
  2. An educated girl is not always obedient and faithful. She has her own friends. She does not like to observe family traditions and customs. She wants to dominate her husband. In her pride and sense of superiority, she does not care for his like and dislikes. At times, her actions put him to shame.
  3. She likes to live in her own independent way. She does not like interference in her affairs. She wants to have her own way in every matter. Often she looks down upon the less educated or uneducated members of the family. Her independent outlook, ill-temperament and haughty nature made the home a hell.

Conclusion
Teacher’s feedback : Dear children
Female education is not always a blessing. Only if a girl has been educated properly at home, she can remain unaffected by the evil effects of modern education. There are girls who have received the highest (UPBoardMaster.com) university education, still they do all the domestic work. This is very important for now honest domestic work. An educated wife can be a great asset to her husband and her family, if she is good natured and respects the traditions of the family and co-operates to run it smoothly.

Speech Writing

Objectives
शब्दों के प्रयोग द्वारा विचारों की अभिव्यक्ति को Speech कहा जाता है। बहुत से लोगों के लिए एक समूह के सामने खड़े होकर बोलना मरने से अधिक डरावना होता है। यह एक प्रकार का डर है जिस पर हमें विजय प्राप्त करनी है। हम सब को जीवन के किसी बिन्दु पर, चाहे वह विद्यालय हो या कार्यस्थल हो, भाषण (speech) के लिए बुलाया जा सकता है। Speech Writing एवं Delivering की कला के विकास से आप इस डर से छुटकारा पा सकते हैं।

Steps to Write an Excellent Speech
Speech Writing की प्रक्रिया में निम्न steps का प्रयोग करके आप किसी भी स्थिति में एक good speech तैयार करने में अपने आपको confident महसूस करेंगे।

  1. Audience : सबसे पहले आपको ये determine करना है कि आपकी speech के लिए audience कौन होगा। आपको उसी के अनुसार speech की writing करनी है। इसके लिए आपको ऐसी भाषा का प्रयोग करना है जो audience को समझ (UPBoardMaster.com) आ सके।
  2. Purpose and Message : अपनी speech writing से पूर्व आपको दो बातों का ध्यान रखना है। पहली आपकी speech का purpose क्या है अर्थात् आपको क्या कहने के लिए बुलाया गया है? दूसरी आपको अपने message को देखते हुए speech को लिखना है। इन दोनों बातों को ध्यान में रखकर आप स्वयं का और audience का ध्यान केंद्रित करने में सफल हो सकते हैं।
  3. Brainstorming : यदि आपकी विषय पर विविध प्रकार की knowledge है तो brainstorming के द्वारा आप उन बातों की list बना सकते हैं जिन पर बोलने में आपका interest है। एक बार यह list लिखित रूप में तैयार हो जाए तो आपको यह देखने में आसानी होगी कि यह आपके time frame में fit हो रही है या नहीं।
  4. Categorize : Brainstorming के पश्चात् आपको अपने main message के उपवर्गीकृत कई क्षेत्र मिलेंगे। आपको इनको श्रोता की पसन्द के अनुसार उपयोगिता को देखना है। किसी भी प्रकार का अधूरापन आपके भाषण के लिए नुकसान देय हो सकता है।
  5. Attention Grabber : आपके श्रोता बैठकर ध्यान से आपके भाषण को सुने, इसके लिए आपको beginning में कुछ interesting; जैसे कोई joke, proverb या question कहना है। जिससे उनका ध्यान आकर्षित हो और वे बैठकर ध्यानपूर्वक सुने।
  6. Introduction : श्रोताओं के ध्यानाकर्षण के पश्चात् आप अपने विषय का संक्षिप्त introduction दे सकते हैं। यह introduction श्रोताओं को उनकी आशा के अनुरूप विषय को सुनने के लिए तैयार करता है।
  7. Body : अपनी Speech के इस भाग में आपको तीन या चार मुख्य बिन्दुओं का वर्णन करना है। ये बिन्दु समान विस्तार लिए होने चाहिएँ। Speech Writing में कठिनाई यह नहीं है कि कोई बिन्दु विस्तार या वर्णन में छोटा हो गया है अपितु किसी विशेष बिन्दु का अधिक विस्तार श्रोताओं को बोर कर सकता है।
  8. Conclusion : यदि आप बहुत कुछ अपने speech से पहले ही कह (UPBoardMaster.com) चुके हैं तो इस भाग में आपको अपने speech को जल्दी से व सुन्दर ढंग से समेटना होता है। क्योंकि श्रोता समझते हैं कि speech समाप्ति की ओर है। आपको इस भाग में अधिक बोलना उनके गुस्से का कारण बन सकता है।

Delivering Your Speech
एक अच्छी speech तब तक अच्छी नहीं होती जब तक उसे आप प्रभावशाली ढंग से deliver नहीं करते। एक बार आप जब अपनी speech को लिख चुके होते हैं तो आपको इसे बोलने का बार-बार अभ्यास करना होता है जिससे पूरी प्रक्रिया में आप अपने आपको सहज महसूस कर सकें। इसके लिए विषय को जानना, अपने समयावधि को जानना आवश्यक होता है। आप speech delivery की practice के लिए शीशे के सामने खड़े होकर इसे बोल सकते हैं। प्रभावशाली ढंग से speech की delivery के लिए निम्नलिखित बातों को ध्यान में रखना चाहिए

  1. Eye-Contact : श्रोतागण आपकी आँखों द्वारा आपसे जुड़ते हैं। आपको श्रोतागणों से नजर न मिलाना दिखाती है कि आप अपने कथन में confident नहीं है या आप कोई बात छुपा रहे हैं। अपना ध्यान एक ही व्यक्ति पर केंद्रित न करके सभी श्रोतागणों की ओर प्रसारित करना चाहिए।
  2. Hand Gestures : Hand Gestures प्रभावशाली हो सकते हैं। एक बिन्दु पर विशेष जोर डालने के लिए आप इनका प्रयोग कर सकते हैं किन्तु अधिक प्रयोग आपके श्रोताओं को नाराज कर सकता है। भाषण देते समय आपको अपने हाथ जेब में नहीं डालने चाहिए।
  3. Facial Expressions : Facial Expressions का प्रयोग करने से डरना नहीं चाहिए। यदि आपको पता है कि आप कुछ funny कह रहे हैं तो आपको मुस्कुराना चाहिए। यदि आप कुछ serious कर रहे हैं तो आपको चेहरे पर गम्भीरता के भाव रखने चाहिए।
  4. Vary your voice : आप क्या कह रहे हैं और इसे कैसे कह रहे हैं (UPBoardMaster.com) दोनो ही बातें समान रूप से महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं। अपनी tone और speech की ओर ध्यान देना चाहिए। तेजी से या चिल्लाकर नहीं बोलना चाहिए और बहुत ही soft voice का प्रयोग भी नहीं करना चाहिए जो सुनाई ही न दे। महत्त्वपूर्ण विचारों पर जोर डालने के लिए अपनी speed और tone का प्रयोग करना चाहिए और दोनों में विविधता का ध्यान रखना चाहिए।
  5. Get plenty of rest and arrive on time: समय पर पहुँचकर भाषण देने जाने के लिए तैयार रहना चाहिए। थका होना आपकी याददाश्त को कमजोर कर सकता है और आपके energy level को कम कर सकता है। भाषण देने से पहले रात को अच्छी प्रकार नींद लेनी चाहिए। इससे बोलते समय आपका energy level ऊँचा रहेगा।
  6. Take your time: अपना समय लीजिए और प्रत्येक को अपने कहे को सुनने व समझने दीजिए। भाषण एक race नहीं है। हमें धीमी शुरूआत करनी चाहिए और यदि आपके श्रोता आपसे कुछ fast बोलने के लिए क़ह रहे हैं, केवल तभी अपनी गति को बढ़ाना चाहिए।
  7. Pause for important ideas : Important ideas को बताने के लिए बीच-बीच में रूकना आवश्यक है। ऐसा करने से आपके श्रोताओं को आपके द्वारा कहे शब्दों पर सोचने का अवसर मिलता है। अपने Speech के सबसे Important points (UPBoardMaster.com) के बाद रुकना चाहिए।
  8. Find a friendly face : अपनी speech को deliver करते समय आपको एक friendly face को ढूंढ़ना चाहिए। यह पूरी speech के समय आपका उत्साहवर्धन करेगा। उस व्यक्ति को घूरना नहीं चाहिए किन्तु अपने उत्साह को बढ़ाने के लिए केवल समय-समय पर उसे देखते रहना चाहिए।

Conclusion
उपरोक्त बातों को ध्यान में रखते हुए आप एक अच्छे वक्ता बन सकते हैं और साथ ही भाषण लेखन की कला में भी पारंगत हो सकते हैं।
विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ specimen के तौर पर कुछ भाषण नीचे दिए जा रहे हैं।

1. Topic: Should students be required to wear a uniform to school ?

Should students be required to wear a uniform to school? That is the question that has been raised for discussion here today.

Private schools have long been known for having school uniform policies. Now some public schools are deciding whether they want their students to wear a school uniform.

Some people argue that requiring students to dress a certain way takes away their sense of creativity and individuality. However, there are several strong arguments in favor of school requiring school uniforms.

Wearing a school uniform can cause some students to take their responsibilities more seriously. If they wear the same clothes to school that they wear when they go to the mall with their friends, (UPBoardSolutions.com) they may have the same laid back attitude in both places. Wearing ‘work clothes’ to school can change the students frame of mind to a more serious attitude that is focused on study.

School uniforms can also lessen the negative effects of class status. In some schools you are only popular if you wear the latest fashions and trends.

Required school uniforms can reduce fighting among students and prevent outsiders from being able to get into the school undetected.

Some opponents of school uniforms worry about the cost, but uniforms can actually cost less than other school clothes. With regular clothes you usually buy a different outfit for each day of the week. You may even buy more than that. With a school uniform you can just purchase a few as you don’t have to worry about wearing something different each day. You can also pass school uniforms down to family members or find them on sale from other families.

There is a lot of controversy over whether or not school uniforms should be required. However, when you look at the facts you will see that there are many benefits to students all wearing the same thing to (UPBoardSolutions.com) school.

Students may take school more seriously, teasing and violence can be decreased and you may even save some money.

2. Topic: Should children be allowed to own and use cellphones?

It is difficult to imagine a time when we did not have cell phones. Many of us rely on our phone throughout the day in order to stay in contact with our business, friends and families. Whether we like the cell phone or not, it has become an essential part of our society and there is little chance of its use being curtailed in the near future.

Even children have begun to carry their own cell phones, not only for emergency and family use but to stay in touch with their friends through the use of text messaging.

What are the positive and negative points of allowing a child to carry a cell phone?

There’s no doubt that when it’s necessary, a cell phone becomes an important tool for a child to use in the event of an emergency. We live in a very difficult and sometimes dangerous world.

Having a means of contact with your child at all times through the use of a cell phone could be a matter of their personal safety.

Children have used cell phones to contact their parents or officials in the event of a threatening situation and have even used the photo ability of the cell phone to ward off or identify predators. As children grow older, it is also often a good idea to give them a certain degree of relative freedom. Responsible cell phone ownership could provide this for your child.

On the other hand, owning a cell phone can have a lot of negative impact on a child as well.

These phones can be a large distraction to them, both (UPBoardMaster.com) within the walls of the school system and outside.

It becomes very easy for the child to receive text messages and pictures that the parents may not approve of. Along with that, there are also some health concerns, although unconfirmed, about the dangers of having concentrated cellular waves so close to a developing body on a regular basis.

One option that may meld the two together is to have a cell phone for the child that is limited in its capability to send and receive calls. It would only be able to call out to emergency numbers and can only send and receive two pre-established numbers. This would give the parents some peace of mind, knowing that their child has a means to contact them in case of an emergency.

3. Topic: How Humour Heals

I had to spend a week or so in the hospital last year. A minor ear infection turned into some major problems for my immune system. I was fairly depressed and frustrated one night after my doctor had given (UPBoardMaster.com) me the news that still more tests would be needed, which meant another few days in an uncomfortable bed with people poking and prodding at me.

As I thought about it, the pain began again, and I was sure that my condition might only become more serious. About the time I began to wonder if I would ever see my own home again, my best friend from high school stopped by. She was, quite literally, our class clown. She always had great joke on the tip of her tongue. Even now I can’t help but smile when I think about her.

Two hours after she left, I felt great. I had no pain when I woke up the next morning, and that evening, all of my test results were positive. A miracle? Actually, yes. Study after study has indicated that humour has interesting healing powers.

One way that humour can help to heal is that it literally changes our outlook on life. As we laugh, we have trouble seeing life’s difficulties the same way. Suddenly, our problems don’t seem quite as bad. Humour allows one to distance him/herself from a painful physical or medical situation while also acknowledging that he or she is in such a situation.

This change in perspective is a powerful healing force. Distancing yourself from a distressing situation allows you to view certain circumstances from a more objective perspective, and this can help you extract powerful (UPBoardSolutions.com) emotions that focus on your pain or sorrow. In doing this, you do not reject the painful circumstances surrounding you, but acknowledge the reality of your situation–the good with the bad.

Recent mental health studies have shown that laughter can stimulate areas of the brain that release endorphins, helping us to see our situation more clearly. The healing power of humour is wide-ranging in scope and situation. Though medically, the interesting healing powers of humour are still being studied by many scientists, humour clearly heals the spirit—a part of every one of us which is often neglected by medicine and science.

Seeing the humour in our painful or emotional situations can free us from the chains we have built around ourselves helping us to recognize that life is more than anger or pain or sorrow, but that it is full of humour and the contagious sound of laughter.

So, in the words of the great Han Solo, “Laugh it up, fuzzball.”

Word-Knowledge and Its Use

Objectives
किसी वाक्य का निर्माण दो या दो से अधिक शब्दों के प्रयोग से होता है। अत: विद्यार्थियों को शब्दों के अर्थ एवं प्रयोग का समुचित ज्ञान कराया जाना आवश्यक है। शब्दों के समुचित ज्ञान के लिए उन्हें Word Formation (शब्द-रचना), Groups of Similar Words Distinguished (शब्दों में सूक्ष्म भेद), Synonyms & Antonyms (पर्यायवाची एवं विलोम शब्द), Idioms and Phrases (मुहावरे एंवलोकोकियाँ वाक्यांश) का अपनी भाषा में प्रयोग, dictionary की help से विभिन्न words के meanings को समझना एांव उनका use का अभ्याम करवाना आवश्यक है।
Word-Knowledge and Its Use के लिए विद्यार्थियों को उपरोक्त सभी का संक्षिप्त (UPBoardMaster.com) विवरण अभ्यास सहित नीचे दिया जा रहा है। इसके अधिकाधिक अभ्यास से विद्यार्थियों के शब्द ज्ञान में वृद्धि होगी। तथा इसके सही प्रयोग का कौशल विकसित होगा।

1. Word Building

Forming nouns from verbs, adjectives from nouns, adjectives from verbs, nouns from adjectives, verbs, from adjectives, etc. is generally described as word building’. A carefully study of the following examples of word building may be very useful.

Forming Nouns from Verbs

Verb Noun VerbNoun
Act
Apply
Bind
Carry
Decide
Depend
Enter
Fail
Give
Hate
Inspect
Mix
Obey
Please
Quote
Reduce
Speak
Tell
Weigh
Action
Application
Bond
Carriage
Decision
Dependence
Entrance
Failure
Gift
Hatred
Inspection
Mixture
Obedience
Pleasure
Quotation
Reduction
Speech
Tale
Weight
Admit
Attach
Believe
Compel
Define
Disturb
Expect
Flow
Grow
Heal
Loose
Narrate
Oppose
Practice
Receive
Repeat
Secure
Try
Wed
Admission
Attachment
Belief
Compulsion
Definition
Disturbance
Expectation
Flood
Growth
Health
Loss
Narration
Opposition
Practice
Reception
Repetition
Security
Trial
Wedding

Formation of Noun[s] from Adjectives

AdjectiveNounAdjectiveNoun
Active
Curious
Loyal
Minor
Intelligent
Wise
Deep
Activity
Curiosity
Loyalty
Minority
Intelligence
Wisdom
Depth
Bold
Equal
Major
Popular
Long
Honest
Excellent
Boldness
Equality
Majority
Popularity
Length
Honesty
Excellence

Formation of Verbs from Nouns

Noun Verb Noun Verb
Soft
Beauty
Class
Courage
Title
Price
Head
Fool
Breath
Soften
Beautify
Classify
Encourage
Entitle
Prize
Behead
Be fool
Breathe
Light
Justice
Glory
Circle
Prison
Sympathy
Friend
Blood
Custom
Lighten
Justify
Glorify
Encircle
Imprison
Sympathize
Befriend
Bleed
Accustom

Formation of Verbs from (UPBoardMaster.com) Adjectives

AdjectiveVerbAdjective Verb
Black
Equal
Fresh
Firm
Certain
Blacken
Equalize
Refresh
Confirm
Ascertain
Quick
Real
Public
Clean
Mean
Quicken
Realize
Publish
Cleanse
Demean

Formation of Adjectives from Nouns

Noun AdjectiveNounAdjective
Thirst
Crime
Magic
Love
Day
Favor
Profit
Labor
Hope
Circle
Earth
Type
Thirsty
Criminal
Magical
Lovely
Daily
Favorable
Profitable
Laborious
Hopeful
Circular
Earthen
Typical
Hunger
Office
Person
Dead
Year
Value
Sense
Danger
Tact
Angel
Book
Voice
Hungry
Official
Personal
Deadly
Yearly
Valuable
Sensible
Dangerous
Tactful
Angelic
Bookish
Vocal

The Same Words Used As Different Parts of Speech

There are many words which can be used as different parts of speech and thus give different meanings.

1. Book

Noun : He has not read this book.
Verb : Passengers should get their luggage booked.
Adjective : Kamlesh is a book-worm.

2. Last

Noun : The brave soldiers fought to the last.
Verb : Truth lasts longer than lies.
Adjective : Luck is our last hope.

3. Round

Noun : The Principal had a round of the college.
Verb : The police will round up all pick-pockets.
Adjective : The earth is round.
Adverb : You cannot bring him round to your views.
Preposition : The officer is going round the city.

4. Like

Verb : Do you like this pen?
Preposition : Do not behave like this.
Noun : We shall not have (UPBoardMaster.com) Gandhiji like again.
Adjective : They are men of like temperament.

5. Right

Noun : Rights should go with duties.
Adjective : They have taken the right decision.
Verb : Things will right themselves slowly.
Adverb : He will stand right in my way.

6. Needs

Noun : My needs are greater than yours.
Verb : He needs my help.

7. Change

Noun : Life is full of changes.
Verb : Why don’t you change your shoes?

8. Close

Verb : When will our school close for the summer vacation?
Noun : The function come to a close very late in the evening
Adjective : Manohar is my close friend.

9. Light

Verb : Light a lamp, please.
Noun : Light travels in a straight line.
Adjective: : He takes light food.
Adverb : Always travel light.

10. Wrong

Noun : Two wrongs do not make a right.
Adjective : It is a wrong answer.
Verb : He wronged me when he said that (UPBoardMaster.com) I was jealous of him.

2. Pairs or Groups of Similar words Distinguished

Words similar in sound or form or meaning are generally confused and consequently misused by the students. They are therefore advised to study the correct usage of such words:

Words Similar in Sound

  1. Accept (रूवीकार करना) : Will you please accept my invitation to a dinner?
    Except (सिवाय) : All except you were present.
  2. Access (पहुँच ) : I have no access to my manager.
    Excess ( अधिकता ) : Excess of everything is bad.
  3. Advice (सलाह) : My advice fell flat upon him.
    Advise (सलाह देना) : My uncle advised me to be regular at work.
  4. Break (तोड़ना) : You should not break your links with your sincere friends.
    Brake (गति को रोकने वाला यन्र): He had to apply brakes to stop his bicycle.
  5. Career (जीवन – चरित्र) : You must (UPBoardSolutions.com) put in hard work to improve your academic career.
    Carrier (वाहन) : My car is without a luggage carrier.
  6. Cloth (कपड़ा बिना सिला हुआ) : He deals in cloth.
    Clothes (सिले हुए वस्त्र) : Please change your clothes.
  7. Fair (मेला, सुंदर) : I paid a visit to the village fair.
    Fare (किराया) : Did you pay your bus fare?
  8. Hole (छेद) : She is making a hole in the wall.
    Whole (सारा) : He did not sleep for the whole.
  9. Story (कहानी) : This was an interesting story.
    Storey (मंजिल) : He lives in the upper storey of this bulding.
  10. Week (सप्ताह) : He is getting married next week.
    Weak (कमजोर) : He is weak in English.

Words Similar in Form

  1. Accident (दुर्घटना) : She was killed in a road accident.
    Incident (घटना) : How can I forget the pleasant incidents of my childhood.
  2. Eligible (योग्य) : You are not eligible for this post.
    Illegible (जो पढ़ा न जा सके) : Your hand writing is illegible; you must improve it.
  3. Loose (ढीला) : His shirt is loose.
    Lose (खोना ) : We should not lose temper.
  4. Popular (प्रसिद्ध) : Kishore Kumar was a popular singer.
    Populous (घनी आबादी वाला) : Kolkata is a populous city.
  5. Industrial (औद्योगिक) : Noida is an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh.
    Industrious (परिश्रमी) : Industrious students tend to succeed in life.
  6. Lovable (प्यार के योग्य) : Your manneres (UPBoardSolutions.com) are lovable indeed.
    Lovely (सुन्दर) : What a lovely flower!
  7. Defective (त्रुटि – पूर्ण) : Our system of examination is defective.
    Deficient (अभावपूर्ण) : He seems to be deficient in his ability to learn.
  8. Beneficial (लाभप्रद) : The changed diet proved beneficial for him.
    Beneficent (दयालु) : Ashok the Great was a beneficent king.
  9. Adapt (परिस्थिति अनुसार ढालना): You must adapt yourself to a new way of life in the foreign country.
    Adopt (ग्रहण करना) : The old man has adopted a son.
    Adept (चतुर, निपुण) : She is adept in singing.
  10. Union (संगठन) : Union is strength.
    Unity (एकता) : India is known for her unity in diversity.
  11. President (सभापति) : Suresh Chand was elected president for this association.
    Precedent (पूर्व दृष्टान्त) : There is no precedent for this action in such matters.

Words Similar In Meaning

  1. Abstain (किसी वस्तु से परहेज) : You are advised to abstain from wine.
    Refrain (किसी कर्म से परहेज) : We must refrain from gambling.
  2. Admit (स्वीकार करना) : He was admitted to the college of education.
    Confess (गलती को मानना) : She confessed her fault.
    Allow (होने देना) : He allowed his son to take part in games.
    Permit (अनुमति देना) : He was permitted to appear in the examination.
  3. Battle (युद्ध) : When was the battle of Panipat fought?
    War (महायुद्ध) : We must avert the third world war for our progress and prosperity.
  4. Blunder (गम्भीर गलती) : He committed a blunder in accepting this job.
    Error (गलती) : It was an error on any part to think that he was a sincere friend.
    Mistake (भ्रांति) : All the mistakes have been corrected.
  5. Bring (लाना) : Could you please bring a new watch on your next visit?
    Fetch (जाकर लान) : Please fetch me a glass of water.
  6. Crime (जुर्म) : Theft is a crime.
    Vice (बुराई) : Gambling is a vice.
    Sin (पाप) : It is a sin to hate others.
  7. Defend (वर्तमान खतरे से बचाव): We must defend our country.
    Protect (किसी परोक्ष खतरे से बचाना) : You must protect your child against infectious diseases.
  8. Excuse (छोटी गलती के लिए क्षमा): Please excuse my interruption.
    Forgive (कुछ बड़ी भूल को क्षमा करना) : Let us forgive him for his false statement.
    Pardon (गम्भीर भूल को क्षमा करना): The king pardoned the criminal on his assurance that he would not repeat what he had done.

3. Antonyms & Synonyms

Words of the same class, but opposite in meaning are called antonyms. (UPBoardMaster.com) Synonyms, on the other hand, are words of similar meaning. A careful study of the following words of these categories will no doubt serve a useful purpose.

Words AntonymsWordsAntonyms
Ability
Acceptance
Advantage
Ancient
Arrival
Ascend
Above
Allow
Assemble
Beautiful
Blunt
Bold
Continue
Care
Creation
Day
Early
Entrance
Full
Guest
Hot
Happy
Innocent
like
Movable
Male
Obey
Public
Polite
Rich
Reward
Disability
Rejection
Disadvantage
Modern
Departure
Descend
Below
Disallow
Disperse
Ugly
Sharp
Timid
Discontinue
Neglect
Destruction
Night
Late
Exit
Empty
Host
Cold
Sad
Guilty
Dislike
Immovable
Female
Disobey
Private
Impolite
Poor
Punishment
Absence
Adversity
Active
Attack
Accept
Agree
Appear
Borrow
Begin
Blessing
Broad
Clean
Credit
Come
Deep
Dark
Equal
Failure
Fresh
Honest
Heaven
Hard
Import
Lead
Majority
Master
Peace
Pure
Rough
Rise
Young
Presence
Prosperity
Passive
Defend
Reject
Disagree
Disappear
Lend
End
Curse
Narrow
Dirty
Debit
Go
Shallow
Light
Unequal
Success
Stale
Dishonest
Hell
Soft
Export
Follow
Minority
Servant
War
Impure
Smooth
Fall
Old

Synonyms

WordsSynonymsWordsSynonyms
Active
Adept
Adverse
Aid
Abundant
Anger
Barren
Bestow
Brave
Common
Capable
Contrary
Competent
Cheat
Chaos
Desire
Dear
Eminent
Effect
Foolish
Habituated
Incite
Lasting
Novice
Prudent
Rude
Restrict
Stern
Vacate
Yield
Smart
Expert
Contrary
Support
Plentiful
Fury
Fruitless
Confer
Bold
Mutual
Complicated
Opposite
Able
Deceive
Disorder
Wish
Costly
Famous
Impact
Stupid
Addicted
Provoke
Permanent
Beginner
Wise
Rough
Confine
Hard
Quit
Surrender
Abnormal
Advantageous
Adhere
Abolish
Advise
Anxiety
Bias
Brief
Bogus
Comply
Cruel
Confuse
Compassion
Civil
Cause
Detest
Eager
Exceed
Final
Hopeful
Industrious
Lavish
Luminous
Obvious
Quite
Replace
Solitary
Sad
Weak
Curtail
Exceptional
Beneficial
Attach
Destroy
Counsel
Worry
Prejudice
Concise
False
Agree
Ruthless
Perplex
Pity
Courteous
Reason
Hate
Anxious
Excel
Ultimate
Optimistic
Diligent
Extravagant
Diligent
Clear
Clam
Substitute
Lonely
Depressed
Feeble
Reduce

4. Some Important Idioms and Phrases

Idioms and phrases are the very soul of a language. They are a sign of the richness of a language. There are many verbs which come to have an idiomatic sense when they are followed by certain prepositions (UPBoardMaster.com) or adverbs. Sometimes metaphors enter into idiomatic phraseology. Following is a list of common idioms and phrases used in sentences :

  1. Above board (open, honest) : We love this officer because he is above board in his dealings.
  2. At arm’s length (to avoid mixing with somebody) : I keep bad friends at arm’s length.
  3. At a loss (puzzled) : I am at a loss to know what to do.
  4. At the eleventh hour (at the last moment) : He came to me for help at the eleventh hour.
  5. At a stone’s throw (very near): My house is at a stone’s throw from the college.
  6. To bell the cat (to face risk) : All cry against the officer but nobody has the courage to bell the cat
  7. To back out (to break a promise) : Do not back out of your promise.
  8. Carry on (to continue): Please carry on your work.
  9. Crocodile tears (false tears) : He shed crocodile tears at the death of his uncle.
  10. A child’s play (easy job): To win an Olympic medal is not a child’s play.
  11. To do without (to dispense with) : I cannot do without tea.
  12. Get through (pass) : An intelligent boy always gets through an examination.
  13. To give up (to stop doing) : He has given up smoking.
  14. Heart and soul (with full energy) : He threw himself heart and soul into work.
  15. Hard and fast (strict) : There are no hard and fast rules in English Grammar.
  16. In the long run (in the end) : Honesty pays in the long run.
  17. In a fix (in confusion) : I am in a fix and want your help
  18. To keep an eye on (to watch) : Parents keep an eye on the activities of children.
  19. Keep pace with (to go side by side): A young man should keep pace with the changing times.
  20. To look down upon (to hate): The rich should not look down upon the poor.
  21. A maiden speech (first speech) : His maiden speech was quite impressive.
  22. A nine days wonder (for a short period) : Youth is only a nine days wonder.
  23. A red letter day (an important day) : The 26th of January is a red letter day in Indian’s history.
  24. To tell upon (to affect) : Poor food told upon his health.
  25. Through and through (completely) : He is through and through a gentleman.
  26. Ups and down (good and bad times) : Life is full of ups and downs.
  27. Uphill task (a difficult work) : It is an uphill task to run a big business.
  28. Well-to-do (rich) : He belongs to a well-to-do family.
  29. Break up (to close) : The school will break up for summer vacation in May.
  30. Look for (search for): I am looking for my lost pen.
  31. Look upon (to regard) : He looks upon his uncle as his father.
  32. Set out (to start for tour etc.) : He set out on his journey abroad.
  33. By no means (not at all) : Your answer to the question is no means satisfactory.
  34. First and foremost (most important) : To help the needy is our first and foremost duty.
  35. In vain (fruitless) : All his efforts to earn money were in vain.
  36. Fair and square (honest) : This shopkeeper is fair and square in his dealings.

We hope the given UP Board Master for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Reading will help you. If you have any query regarding UP Board Master for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Reading, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

UP Board Master for Class 10 English chapter List

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