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Class 12 English “Figures of Speech”

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BoardUP Board
TextbookNCERT
ClassClass 12
TopicEnglish
Chapter Title“Figures of Speech”
ClassClass 12 English

UP Board Master for Class 12 English “Figures of Speech”

Figures of Speech या ‘अलंकार’ शब्दों का ऐसा असाधारण प्रयोग है जो भाषा में सुन्दरता को पैदा करता है और उसके प्रभाव को और अधिक बढ़ाता है। मुख्य Figures of Speech की परिभाषाएँ एवं उदाहरण नीचे दिए गए हैं

(1) SIMILE
(उपमा)

इसमें दो भिन्न-भिन्न समुदायों की दो भिन्न-भिन्न वस्तुओं में किसी समान गुण की तुलना की जाती है। इसमें like, akin to, simply as, as ………… as, so ………… as आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Definition : A simile expresses comparability between two not like objects or occasions. Normally the comparability is expressed through the use of like, akin to, simply as, as………… as, so …………as.

Examples : 
1. I wandered lonely as a cloud.
2. Childhood is sort of a sv.iftly passing dream.
3. Rana Pratap was as courageous as a lion.
4. The lake was clear as a crystal.
5. Errors like stráws, upon the floor circulate.
6. I might lie down like a drained youngster, and weep away the lifetime of care.
उपर्युक्त उदाहरणों से स्पष्ट होता है कि Simile को पहचानने के लिए निम्नलिखित बातों का ध्यान रखना चाहिए

1. Simile कभी भी एक ही जाति यो समुदाय के दो व्यक्ति या वस्तुओं में नहीं होती, अपितु वे दोनों वस्तुएँ भिन्न-भिन्न जाति या समुदाय की होनी चाहिए। जैसे उदाहरण 1 में 1 की उपमा cloud से दी गई है। यदि । की उपमा किसी व्यक्ति से दी जाती, तब वह Simile नहीं होती।
2. उन दोनों वस्तुओं में समान गुण की तुलना की जानी चाहिए।
3.समानता बताने के लिए so, as, like, so…….. as या as …….. as शब्दों का प्रयोग होना चाहिए।

[Note : ध्यान रखें एक ही जाति या समुदाय के दो व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं की तुलना Simile नहीं होती।]

(2) METAPHOR
(रूपक)

इसमें भी दो भिन्न-भिन्न समुदायों के प्राणी अथवा वस्तुओं में किसी समान गुण की तुलना तो की जाती है, किन्तु तुलना करने के लिए like, so, as ………… as या so………… as शब्दों का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता

Definition : A Metaphor is an implied Simile.
Or
In a Metaphor, two issues are in contrast however the phrases of comparability are usually not used. Childhood is sort of a swiftly passing dream. (Simile) Childhood is a swiftly passing dream (Metaphor)
उपर्युक्त उदाहरणों में स्पष्ट होता है कि Metaphor मेंso, as, like आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग करके उसे Simile में बदला जा सकता है।

Be aware : Metaphor का प्रयोग Noun, Adjective या Verb में से किसी भी रूप में हो सकता है।
(1) Noun के रूप में
1. The camel is the ship of the desert.
2. The hearth of ardour made him blind.
3. A ray of hope could be very priceless within the clouds of despair.
4. My son is the star of our farmily.
5. Lala Lajpat Rai was the lion of the Punjab.

(2) Adjective के रूप में
1. It’s a golden alternative for you.
2. My principal has iron braveness.
3. It’s a lame excuse.
4. A terrorist has a stony coronary heart.
5. In winter the individuals don’t like piercing wind.

(3) verb के रूप में
1. The waves thundered on the shore.
2. You’re keen on blowing your personal trumpet.

Be aware : ध्यान रखें यदि उपमा (Simile) वाले वाक्यों में से so, as, like जैसे शब्दों को हटा दें तब वह वाक्य रूपक (Metaphor) में बदला जा सकता है तथा so, as, like आदि शब्दों का प्रयोग करके उसे उपमा (Simile) में बदलता जा सकता है; जैसे

1. Life is sort of a dream. (Simile) Life is a dream. (Metaphor)
2. Rana Pratap was a lion within the combat. (Metaphor) Rana Pratap fought like a lion. (Simile)

(3) PERSONIFICATION
(मानवीकरण)

जब किसी अदृश्य वस्तु या विचार को व्यक्ति के समान सजीव मान लेते हैं, तब वह मानवीकरण होता है; जैसे
Alternative knocks on the door however as soon as.
‘अवसर केवल एक ही बार दरवाजा खटखटाता है। इस वाक्य में अवसर अदृश्य वस्तु है और वह खटखटाने का कार्य कर रहा है जो एक जीवित प्राणी का कार्य है, अतः यह मानवीकरण अलंकार हुआ।

Definition : In Personification lifeless objects and summary concepts are regarded as dwelling beings.

Examples:

1. Let not Ambition mock their helpful toil.
2. Expertise is the most effective instructor.
3. Authority forgets a dying king.
4. Demise lays his icy palms on kings.
5. Nervousness is sitting on her face:

(4) APOSTROPHE
(सम्बोधन)

इसमें किसी निर्जीव, अदृश्य वस्तु या विचार को या किसी मृत प्राणी को जीवित, दृश्य यो उपस्थित मानकर सम्बोधन किया जाता है तथा उस वस्तु या व्यक्ति के पश्चात् कौमा (,) या सम्बोधन का चिह्न (!) भी अवश्य होता है या उससे पूर्व O लगा होता है; जैसे
1. O Demise! The place is thy sting ?
2. O Liberty! What crimes have been dedicated in thy identify ?
3. Milton ! Thou ought to’st be dwelling at this hour.

उपर्युक्त वाक्य
1 में मृत्यु को तथा वाक्य
2 में स्वतन्त्रता को सम्बोधन किया गया है जो दोनों वस्तुएँ निर्जीव एवं अदृश्य हैं तथा वाक्य
Three में Milton को सम्बोधन किया गया है जो मृत प्राणी है। अतः इन वाक्यों में Apostrophe अलंकार का प्रयोग है।

Definition : In Apostrophe, we handle a lifeless individual or some lifeless factor or an summary thought as a dwelling individual.

Examples :
1. Frailty! Thy identify is girl.
2. Roll on, thou deep and darkish blue ocean ………… Roll !
3. O Luxurious! Thou ………… by heaven’s decree. (Goldsmith)
4. O Grave ! The place is thy victory.
5. O Wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being. (Shelley)

Be aware : Personification और Apostrophe में केवल इतना भेद है कि Personification में निर्जीव वस्तुओं तथा विचारों को जीवित मान लिया जाता है और वे जीवित के से कार्य भी करते हैं, जबकि Apostrophe में मृत व्यक्ति, वस्तुओं या विचारों को जीवित के समान सम्बोधन करते हैं। |

(5) HYPERBOLE
(अतिशयोक्ति)

इस अलंकार में किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तु के गुणों को आवश्यकता से अधिक बढ़ाकर या घटाकर वर्णन किया जाता है; जैसे Belinda smiled and all of the world was homosexual. अर्थात् जब Belinda मुस्कराई तब पूरा संसार प्रसन्न हो गया। इससे स्पष्ट है कि Belinda के मुस्कराने से काफी लोग प्रसन्न हुए होंगे, किन्तु इस बात को इतना बढ़ा दिया गया कि पूरा संसार प्रसन्न हो गया।

Definition : In Hyperbole, an announcement is made emphatic by overstatement.

Examples :
1. She wept oceans of tears…
2. Rivers of blood flowed within the battle.
3. They construct a nation’s pillars deep and carry them to the sky.
4. Ten thousand noticed I at a look.
5. They had been swifter than eagles and stronger than lions.

Be aware : प्रायः जब कोई व्यक्ति कवि या नाटककार, साहित्यकार अपने कथन में किसी व्यक्ति या वस्तुओं को इतना अधिक बढ़ा-चढ़ाकर या घटोकर कहे जो सम्भव न हो तब उसे Hyperbolefigure of speech कहते हैं।

(6) OXYMORON
(विरोधाभास)

इसमें एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु में दो विरोधी गुण एक साथ दिए जाते हैं; जैसे– James-I used to be the wisest idiot. जेम्स प्रथम सबसे बुद्धिमान मूर्ख था अर्थात् जेम्स प्रथम में बुद्धिमानी तथा मूर्खता दोनों परस्पर विरोधी गुण बताए गए हैं।

Definition : In Oxymoron, we discover the affiliation of two phrases or phrases having reverse meanings.

Examples :
1. He’s frequently irregular within the class.
2. She is feeling candy ache.
3. The extra haste, the much less pace.
4. That is an open secret.
5. Our sweetest songs are people who inform of saddest ideas.

Be aware : इस अलंकार में प्रायः एक ही वस्तु या व्यक्ति में दो परस्पर विरोधी गुण दर्शाए जाते हैं और उन्हें अधिकतर जोड़े में प्रयोग करते हैं; जैसे-regularly irregular, bitter candy, pleasingpain, आदि।

(7) ONOMATOPOEIA
(ध्वनि अलंकार)

इसमें शब्द की ध्वनि से ही अर्थ स्पष्ट हो जाता है। प्रायः जानवरों, पक्षियों या कुछ प्राकृतिक वस्तुओं की ध्वनि के लिए अलग शब्दों का प्रयोग होता है जिनसे यह स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि यह ध्वनि किसकी है; जैसे
1. I hear the buzzing of bees. (भिनभिनाहट)
2. The snakes hiss. (फुँकार मारना) Outline ‘Onomatopoeia’ and provides an instance thereof.

Definition : An Onomatopoeia consists in utilizing a phrase just like the sound.

Examples :
1. Pressing drum beat of future calls.
2. Get thee on boughs and clap thy wings.
3. I chatter, chatter as I circulate. (Tennyson)
4. I heard the water lapping on the crag.
5. Cooing of doves could be very nice.
6. A murmuring whisper via the nunnery ran.

Be aware : इस अलंकार को पहचानने के लिए Animals तथा Birds की आवाजों (Cries) का ज्ञान सहायक El tablets 34 Animal 71 Hen on 10 id ;
1. Cattle low.
2. Elephant trumpets.
3. A peacock screams.
4. A horse neighs.
5. A sheep bleats.

EXERCISE 1

Level out the Figures of Speech within the following sentences :
1. As shines the moon within the clouded sky. She in her poor apparel was seen.
2. A lie has no legs.
3. As many farewells as there be stars in heaven.
4. Authority forgets a dying king.
5. All of the perfumes of Arabia is not going to sweeten this little hand.
6. And having nothing he hath all.
7. And out of pleasure His coronary heart jumped miles excessive.
8. A lovelier flower on earth was by no means sown.
9. A murmuring whisper via the nunnery ran.
10. Authority forgets a dying king.
11. Nervousness is sittinig on her power.
12. Belinda smiled and all of the world was homosexual.
13. However endurance to forestall, that murmur quickly replies.
14. Curses are like chickens they arrive residence to rost.
15. Demise lays his icy palms even on kings.
16. Errors, like straws, upon the floor circulate.
17. Exult, o shores ! and ring o bells !
18. Increasing just like the petals of younger flowers I watch the light opening of your minds.
19. From star like eyes doth search gas to keep up hearth.
20. Frailty! They identify is girl.
21. Nice lord of all issues but a prey to all.
22. He’s now within the sundown of his days.
23. Her mom too, upon this event felt a delightful misery.
24. He’s the star of the household. or He’s the pillar of administration.
25. He has a coronary heart of stone.
26. He that loves a rosy cheek or coral lip admires.
27. Hope is the poor man’s bread.
28. He’s idly busy these days.
29. How far that little candle throws his beams! So shines a very good deed in a naughty world.
30. It droppeth because the light rain from heaven.
31. I see a lily on thy brows.
32. I chatter, chatter, as I circulate to affix the brimming river.
33. I hear lake water lapping.
34. I heard the water lapping on the crag.
35. King James I used to be referred to as the wisest idiot of Christendom.
36. Life is a story instructed by an fool.
37. Life is as tedious as a twice instructed story.
38. Evenly ! O flippantly! We glide and we sing We bear her alongside like a pearl on a string.
39. Life is however a strolling shadow.
40. Let not ambition mock their helpful toil.
41. Life is bitter candy.
42. Life is a dream.
43. Love is the spice of life.
44. Life is sort of a dream.
45. ‘Love is blind.
46. Like an enormous python winding spherical and spherical.
47. Appear like harmless flower.
48. Milton ! Thou ought to’st be livinjg at this hour.
49. My love is sort of a purple rose.
50. My buddy is frequently irregular.
51. Will all of the perfumes of Arabia ever sweeten these palms.
52. Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

EXERCISE 2

Level out the Figures of Speech within the following sentences :
1. O judgement ! thou artwork fled to brutish beasts.
2. Alternative knocks on the door however as soon as.
3. O mighty Caesar ! dost thou lie so low.
4. O world ! O life ! O’time ! On whose final steps I climb.
5. O Julius Caesar ! thou artwork mighty but.
6. Our sweetest songs are these That inform of saddest ideas.
7. O Candy Content material ! The place is thy delicate abode.
8. O heavy lightness ! Critical self-importance.
9. O cuckoo ! shall I name thee chicken.
10. O my love’s like purple purple rose.
11. O Solitude ! The place are thy charms.
12. O Grave ! The place is thy victory.
13. Or from star like eyes doth search.
14. O Captain ! My Captain ! Our fearful journey is completed.
15. Peace hath her victories no much less famend than struggle.
16. Pleasure goeth forth on horse again grand and grey, However come the again on foot and begs its manner.
17. Rome, thou hast seen a lot better days.
18. Rivers of blood flowed within the battle.
19. Revenge is a type of wild justice.
20. She wept oceans of tears.
21. She is as recent as dew.
22. She is a fen of staguant water.
23. She hangs like a star within the dew of our track.
24. So like a shattered column lay the king.
25. She floats like fun from the lips of a dream.
26. She is the pillar of the state.
27. She falls like a tear from the eyes of a bride.
28. She skims like a chicken on the froth of a stream.
29. She is gorgeous like a rose.
30. That sages have seen in thy face.
31. The extra haste, the much less pace.
32. Town’s voice itself is delicate like solitude’s.
33. They construct the nation’s pillars deep and carry them to the sky.
34. This sea that bares her bosom to the moon.
35. That is an open secret.
36. The camel is the ship of desert.
37. The snakes are hissing and bees are buzzing.
38. Ten thousand noticed I at a look.
39. The soul was like a star and dwelt aside.
40. There’s a dagger in thy phrases.
41. The ship has weathered each rack.
42. The murmuring of innumerable bees.
43. The moon veiled her face.
44. Reality sits upon the lips of a dying man.
45. The ocean waves rose mountains excessive.
46. The wonder born of murmuring sound shall go into her face.
47. There’s a pleasant animosity between Hari and Shyam.
48. The curfew tolls the knell of parling day.
49. The cloud places forth its deluge straight. When lightening cleaves its breast.
50. Thus idly busy rolls their world away.
51. We’re like swimmers on the ocean of life.
52. Whose armour is his trustworthy thought.
53. Why man, if the rivers had been dry, . I’m able to fill it with tears.
54. Whose conscience is his sturdy retreat. .
55. Who finest bear his delicate yoke, they serve him finest.
56. We wept oceans of tears.
57. Life is a candy poison.

Solutions
EXERCISE 1

1. Simile
2. Personification
3. Hyperbole
4. Personification
5. Hyperbole
6. Oxymoron
7. Hyperbole
8. Metaphor
9. Hyperbole
10. Personification
11. Personification
12. Hyperbole
13. Personification
14. Simile
15. Personification
16. Simile
17. Apostrophe
18. Simile
19. Simile
20. Apostrophe
21. Oxymoron
22. Metaphor
23. Oxymoron
24. Metaphor
25. Metaphor
26. Metaphor
27. Metaphor
28. Oxymoron
29. Simile
30. Simile
31. Metaphor
32. Onomatopoeia
33. Onomatopoeia
34. Onomatopoeia
35. Oxymoron
36. Metaphor
37. Simile
38. Simile
39. Metaphor
40. Personification
41. Oxymoron
42. Metaphor
43. Metaphor
44. Simile
45. Personification
46. Simile
47. Simile
48. Apostrophe
49. Simile
50. Oxymoron
51. Hyperbole
52. Metaphor

EXERCISE 2

1. Apostrophe
2. Personification
3. Apostrophe
4. Apostrophe
5. Apostrophe
6. Oxymoron
7. Apostrophe
8. Apostrophe
9. Apostrophe
10. Simile
11. Apostrophe
12. Apostrophe
13. Simile
14. Apostrophe
15. Personification
16. Personification
17. Apostrophe,
18. Hyperbole
19. Metaphor
20. Hyperbole
21. Simile
22. Metaphor
23. Simile
24. Simile
25. Simile
26. Metaphor
27. Simile
28. Simile
29. Simile
30. Personification
31. Oxymoron
32. Simile
33. Hyperbole
34. Personification
35. Oxymoron
36. Metaphor
37. Onomatopoeia
38. Hyperbole
39. Simile
40. Metaphor
41. Metaphor
42. Onomatopoeia
43. Personification
44. Personification
45. Hyperbole
46. Onomatopoeia
47. Oxymoron
48. Onomatopoeia
49. Personification
50. Oxymoron
51. Metaphor
52. Metaphor
53. Hyperbole
54. Metaphor
55. Metaphor
56. Hyperbole
57. Oxymoron

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